Why the EBacc Lacks Substance

‘‘The English Baccalaureate (EBacc) is a school performance measure. It allows people to see how many pupils get a grade C or above in the core academic subjects* at key stage 4 in any government-funded school.’’ (DfE, 2016)

* English, mathematics, history or geography, the sciences, a language

There have been some very loud voices criticising this narrow measure and its exclusion of any arts subjects, not least the National Society for Education in Art and Design [NSEAD] – for example, see: http://www.nsead.org/downloads/Baccalaureate.pdf.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines Baccalaureate as: ‘‘an examination intended to qualify successful candidates for higher education.’’  On this basis, the EBacc is inappropriately named – as well as conceived.  GCSEs alone do not facilitate university entry, as they are a stepping stone to further study (post-16), not higher study (post-18).

The highly respected International Baccalaureate [IB] Diploma is a post-16 qualification, aimed at developing ‘‘students who have excellent breadth and depth of knowledge – students who flourish physically, intellectually, emotionally and ethically.’’ The arts have a dedicated place in the six subject groups which make up the IB Diploma curriculum.

Here is a simple ‘doughnut’ analogy to illustrate the difference between the IB Diploma and the EBacc…

The IB Diploma is like a plate of juicy, jam filled doughnuts with shiny icing and multicoloured sprinkles. There is colour, flavour and crucially choice.

stock-photo-fresh-donuts-stand-235612729

 

In stark contrast the EBACC is like a partially eaten, ‘bog standard’ doughnut: bland incomplete and unsatisfying. The only choice is ‘Hobsons’.

images

Our education system should excite young people about learning and allow them to pursue their interests. With an increasing focus on ‘pupil voice’ in many schools, in line with the aims of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, it seems very wrong that choices are being taken away from our young people.  Worryingly, the EBacc undermines the study of art for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, as by its current definition, it excludes art and thus implies that art is neither a core subject nor an academic one.   This is certainly not the view of the ESAG for Art, Craft and Design.

Dr Emese Hall (University of Exeter)

Researching Art, Craft and Design

There are various sources of guidance and inspiration for those looking to investigate learning and teaching in art, craft and design education.  Many of these approaches use creative and artistic methods.  Here are some suggestions to get you started…

a/r/tography Website
‘‘To be engaged in the practice of a/r/tography means to inquire in the world through an ongoing process of art making in any artform and writing not separate or illustrative of each other but interconnected and woven through each other to create additional and/or enhanced meanings…’’

Arts Based Educational Research [ABER] Bibliography
This is a very useful list of books, chapters, articles and links to conference papers about ABER on the a/r/tography website. 

British Educational Research Association ABER Special Interest Group [SIG]
Arts Based Education Research aims to understand education through arts-based concepts, techniques and practice. Practitioners use a variety of arts-based methodologies to undertake their research and / or to communicate their understanding through such diverse genres as autobiography, narrative, poetry, visual arts, drama, dance, music and performance…’’

ABER SIG of the American Educational Research Association [AERA] – Resources Page
Providing a community for those who view education through artistic lenses, who use a variety of arts-based methodologies, and who communicate understandings through diverse genres.’’

National (US) Art Education Association [NAEA] Research Portal
‘‘What does current research say about the value of learning in the visual arts? What topics are emerging in the arts research world? How does research inform teaching practices and how can what happens in your classroom inform research?’’

NAEA Research Agenda
‘‘The NAEA Research Agenda is designed to encourage and disseminate research communicating the value of visual arts education and its collective impact on students, schools, communities, and society.’’

International Society of Education through Art [InSEA] Research Blog
Look here for links to recent international PhD theses, art/s conferences, news etc.

Dr Emese Hall (University of Exeter)