‘‘The English Baccalaureate (EBacc) is a school performance measure. It allows people to see how many pupils get a grade C or above in the core academic subjects* at key stage 4 in any government-funded school.’’ (DfE, 2016)
* English, mathematics, history or geography, the sciences, a language
There have been some very loud voices criticising this narrow measure and its exclusion of any arts subjects, not least the National Society for Education in Art and Design [NSEAD] – for example, see: http://www.nsead.org/downloads/Baccalaureate.pdf.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines Baccalaureate as: ‘‘an examination intended to qualify successful candidates for higher education.’’ On this basis, the EBacc is inappropriately named – as well as conceived. GCSEs alone do not facilitate university entry, as they are a stepping stone to further study (post-16), not higher study (post-18).
The highly respected International Baccalaureate [IB] Diploma is a post-16 qualification, aimed at developing ‘‘students who have excellent breadth and depth of knowledge – students who flourish physically, intellectually, emotionally and ethically.’’ The arts have a dedicated place in the six subject groups which make up the IB Diploma curriculum.
Here is a simple ‘doughnut’ analogy to illustrate the difference between the IB Diploma and the EBacc…
The IB Diploma is like a plate of juicy, jam filled doughnuts with shiny icing and multicoloured sprinkles. There is colour, flavour and crucially choice.
In stark contrast the EBACC is like a partially eaten, ‘bog standard’ doughnut: bland incomplete and unsatisfying. The only choice is ‘Hobsons’.
Our education system should excite young people about learning and allow them to pursue their interests. With an increasing focus on ‘pupil voice’ in many schools, in line with the aims of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, it seems very wrong that choices are being taken away from our young people. Worryingly, the EBacc undermines the study of art for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, as by its current definition, it excludes art and thus implies that art is neither a core subject nor an academic one. This is certainly not the view of the ESAG for Art, Craft and Design.
Dr Emese Hall (University of Exeter)